decentralized security system

The Department of Computer Science and Engineering is delighted to announce that Dr Rajiv Senapati and his research group; Abhiram Chakravadhanula, Jaswanth Kolisetty, Karthik Samudrala and Bharat Preetham have published a research article titled “A Novel Decentralized Security Architecture for the Centralized Storage System in Hadoop using Blockchain Technology” in the Scopus indexed IEEE 7th I2CT (The premier conference for the latest discoveries in Convergence in Technology in Asia Pacific).

Over the past decades, the Big Data ecosystem is experiencing a humungous explosion in the generation and exchange of information. Trading such delicate information can serve as a profitable knowledge resource in the present economy. However, serious concerns have been raised about the security and assurance of delicate data as the conventional safety architecture in centralized storage systems does not meet its nuanced requirements. Blockchain technology offers a promising solution for big data protection due to its decentralized nature. Through this research article, Dr Rajiv Senapati and his students intend to introduce a decentralized security architecture in centralized storage systems such as Hadoop to address its existing vulnerabilities.

Abstract of the Research

Big Data is huge in volume, diverse in information, and growing at flourishing rates. The major distributed file systems in the current market in Big Data Analysis include Apache Hadoop, Storm, Cassandra, Flink, Cloudera, and many more. Hadoop is an open-source framework divided into Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) and Map-Reduce. Hadoop plays a leading role in storing and processing Big Data in contemporary society as it is cost-effective and can manage large volumes of data in low-cost commodity hardware. HDFS is a type of Data Warehouse which is scalable and has fast access to information.

Metadata is the information about the data, such as which block is storing on what datanode, how many replications that block has, and on which datanodes those replications reside. In HDFS, this metadata is stored at a fixed place in namenode, and attackers can access the metadata and modify it without notice. Also, metadata is mutable, which means the attacker can erase his presence easily.

In this paper, to resolve this issue, we have provided a mechanism using blockchain technology that follows a decentralized architecture against the centralized architecture followed by HDFS. Hyperledger Fabric (HLF) is the blockchain proposed to be effective and trusted for such a purpose. HLF is a private blockchain with a distributed immutable ledger. The metadata will be stored in the ledger. If an attacker tries to modify the data, he cannot erase his presence as the ledger is immutable, unlike HDFS. Further, the work proposed in this paper can be extended in real-time HDFS with a secure ledger and multiple nodes.

The Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering is proud to announce the remarkable achievement of the students Chebrolu Taraka Sai Tanishq and Vellampalli Medha V Subrahmanya Aditya. They have designed a wearable face shield and secured the second position in IEEE Covigilance, 2021 – A pan India student contest based on Covid-19 relief do it yourself equipment design and development, under the guidance of Dr Anirban Ghosh, and got a patent published for their prototype developed as part of the competition. The team also participated in the 4th Research Day organized by SRM University-AP and received a gold medal.

The prototype was submitted in the design competition on July 30, 2021, and after 40 days of rigorous brainstorming, component procurement and prototype development, the final model was submitted for evaluation. Based on prototype execution, feasibility of manufacturing and suitability of the model to contain the spread of the pandemic, the team secured second place in the Pan India contest, and it was deemed fit to address the two criteria; innovation challenges like Innovation of homemade masks/shields/PPEs and innovation of a feasible solution to control covid-19 spread while the schools and colleges are reopening. Further, this prototype was submitted to the patent office under the name “A Wearable Face Shield” (Application no:202241000990) and the patent was published on January 21, 2022.

Their accomplishment bears testimony to the fact that unflinching determination towards your goals and consistent efforts to make them come true will always pay off. Designing a wearable face shield is a well-timed innovation as the pandemic shows no sign of retreat and face shield has become one of the daily necessities of all mankind.

About the Prototype

The wearable face shield is a medical protective device, and it comprises a frame for securing the shield to the head of a wearer, a transparent sheet extending from the frame, a detection circuit that is mounted on the frame, a switch, and a battery module. The detection circuit comprises of a control unit that processes the sensed data received from proximity and temperature sensors to generate output signals and an alerting unit that comprises LEDs, buzzer and it provides an indication of– (i) the presence of a detected external object within a pre-determined distance of the wearer (ii) the sensed body temperature of the wearer. The alerting unit is placed strategically to alert people via visual and audio signals respectively.

Such precautionary detection and proximity alert prototype can prove instrumental in early diagnosis and isolation aiding in crowd management and free movement in places of social gathering. Hence, a wearable face shield ensures adequate separation between persons and facilitates temperature monitoring and early detection of disease.

They are currently working on a project called “Human Monitoring System” (HUM). It is an all-pervasive system designed to measure and keep track of the heartbeat, blood pleasure, temperature, location, Spo2 level etc of the user. In the event of an emergency or critical drop in any of the vitals, the system can automatically alert the local hospital, ambulance service and relatives.

Dr Nimai Mishra, Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, SRM University-AP, Andhra Pradesh, along with his research group comprising of students pursuing PhD under his supervision, Ms VG Vasavi Dutt, Mr Syed Akhil, Mr Rahul Singh, and Mr Manoj Paalabathuni have published a research article titled “High-Quality CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, or I) Perovskite Nanocrystals Using Ascorbic Acid Post-Treatment: Implications for Light-Emitting Applications” in the Journal “ACS Applied Nano Materials” (published by The American Chemical Society) having an impact factor of ~5.1.


Cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX3 PNCs) have been the flourishing area of research in the field of photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications because of their excellent optical and electronic properties. However, they suffer from low stability and deterioration of photoluminescence (PL) properties post-synthesis. One of the ways to minimize the surface defects in the surface treatment with suitable ligands is to achieve the PNCs with superior PL properties for light-emitting applications.

In this article, Dr Mishra’s research group addressed the issue of stability in PNCs. We demonstrate to achieve high photoluminescence and stability of CsPbX3 PNCs by incorporating ascorbic acid via post-treatment as a new capping ligand that is abundantly available. Upon addition of ascorbic acid as surface passivation ligand into the oleic acid/oleylamine system to get near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of CsPbBr3, CsPb(Br/I)3, and for CsPbI3 perovskite NCs. Maintaining stability has become the hotspot of research in this field. Hence, as-a-proof of concept, the stability studies of PNCs in ambient conditions, under continuous UV irradiation, and PL with temperature variations are put forth here. The stability enhancement with post-treatment of ascorbic acid is highly reproducible as we tested for four batches of samples.

Despite the significant advancements of PNCs, there is a challenge afflicting the stability of CsPbI3 PNCs. They are thermodynamically unstable and undergo a non-perovskite phase (δ-phase) transition at room temperature. Many efforts have been reported in the stabilization of iodide perovskite NCs by critically passivating PNCs and applying them for optoelectronics and photovoltaics. On the other hand, mixed halide perovskites like CsPbBrI2 which are relatively stable than CsPbI3 PNCs are a better choice for device applications. But, photo-induced halide segregation is unavoidable which in turn again limit their usage in practical applications. In this manuscript, we demonstrated that the ultra-stable iodide-based PNCs can be achieved by simple and facile surface treatment with ascorbic acid.

The PL intensity of untreated and ascorbic acid-treated PNCs is recorded for 42 days since the date of synthesis. The measurements are carried out for 4 different batches of samples to ensure reproducibility. It is found that the PL intensity is deteriorating rapidly for untreated PNCs while the PL intensity is largely maintained for ascorbic acid treated PNCs. Nearly ̴72% of the initial PL intensity is maintained even after 42 days for the ascorbic acid-treated CsPbBr3 PNCs while the PL intensity is dropped to 24% for untreated PNCs. Ascorbic acid treated CsPbBrI2 PNCs exhibited exceptional ambient stability where ̴69% of the initial PL intensity is maintained after 42 days while the PL of untreated CsPbBrI2 PNCs is degraded rapidly within 2 weeks from the date of synthesis. Moreover, the PL stability of CsPbI3 PNCs is high for ascorbic acid-treated samples even after 55 days while the PL has deteriorated within 4 days for untreated CsPbI3 PNCs. The PL of untreated CsPbI3 PNCs is completely lost in the first 4 hours of UV illumination while ̴ 76.7% remnant PL is observed for ascorbic acid-treated CsPbI3 PNCs. We believe the stabilization of CsPbX3 PNCs of different halide compositions via simple surface treatment with ascorbic acid could form a basis for futuristic light-emitting applications.

Read the full paper:

Mr Chandra S Bhatt, a PhD Scholar (CSIR-JRF) working under the guidance of Dr Anil K Suresh, Associate Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, has won the Best Oral Presentation Award at the International Conference on “Novel Materials and Technologies for Energy Applications,” organised by BITS Pilani-Hyderabad, on February 18-19, 2022. Prof Ashutosh Sharma, Former DST Secretary & Institute Chair Professor, IIT Kanpur, was the Chief Guest of the Conference.


Mr Bhatt’s project aims to develop the best out of waste, which is practically demonstrated by synthesising gold nanostructured eggshell-based supported catalyst. Besides this novel strategy, the megacatalyst is implemented in the real-time degradations of organic and sewage dyes that are harmful to the environment and hydrogenation of nitroarenes at gram-scale (precursors for various pharmaceutical ingredients). Our rationale, naturally created, stable, reusable, hand-removable, resilient catalyst developed from left-over food waste trounces the majority of the existing challenges while utilising nano-based catalysts for heterogeneous catalysis.

With this innovation, Mr Bhatt aims to demonstrate pilot-scale (100-1000 litre) batch catalytic reactions for real-time textile sewage dye detoxification and gram scale hydrogenation of pharma-precursor for the production of acetaminophen, as a step of validation for immediate technology transfer and commercialisation for both environmental remediation and active pharmaceutical ingredients (API’s).

About the Author:

Mr Bhatt aims to continue his scientific career as a prominent scientist in the interdisciplinary area of nano-immunology for cancer theragnostics. Therefore, after the completion of his PhD, he wishes to advance his research career to contribute further to the realm of science upon postdoctoral training from a top-ranking institution abroad.

“It is indeed a moment of pride for me to be awarded the Best Oral Presentation Award in an International Conference organised by BITS Pilani, Hyderabad, winning over 30 participants across the Nation. I express my heartfelt gratitude to my supervisor Dr Anil K Suresh, for his guidance and motivation me throughout the journey,” said Mr Bhatt.

While expressing his joy, Dr Suresh emphatically said, “This was his first oral presentation in an International Conference, and he was conferred with the “Best Oral Presentation” Award. This recognition speaks for Chandra Sekhar’s dedication to his research. He has been working enthusiastically on this project, and I wish that the paper gets published in a high-impact journal which has already been communicated for Shekar’s bright scientific career.”

artificial intelligence bioelectrochemical system

The Department of Environmental Science is glad to announce that Dr Lakhveer Singh has published his paper titled, “Leveraging artificial intelligence in bioelectrochemical systems” in a prestigious journal Trends in Biotechnology with a high Impact Factor of 19.53.

The paper was published in collaboration with Baptist University, Hong Kong and Oregon State University, USA.

Abstract of the Research

Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are highly evolved and sophisticated systems that produce bioenergy via exoelectrogenic microbes. Artificial intelligence (AI) helps to understand, relate, model, and predict both process parameters and microbial diversity, resulting in higher performance. This approach has revolutionised BESs through highly advanced computational algorithms that best suit the systems’ architecture for suitable fuel production.

About the Research

The performance of the microbial reactors primarily depends on the activity of the biocatalysts, indirectly governed by the microbial community structure and function. In this context, microbial dynamics are crucial for performance consistency and are sensitive to both biotic and abiotic stress in the reactor. To address this, a comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of the community dynamics is essential. Understanding the metabolic and electrochemical potentials would provide a basis for the selection and control of efficient communities with ramped metabolic flux and boosted electrogenic activity. The research will help in the development of an improved system for green fuel production.

According to Dr Lakhveer Singh and his collaborators, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Systems (ANFISs), backed with iterative and backpropagation abilities, can be applied to Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) with improved computational models. This will eventually provide a breakthrough in operational and translational research predicting newer parameters, such as predictions of the emergence of substrate-specific microbial communities in biosensors or bioreactors. They intend to work on this in future.

Every year National Science Day is celebrated across the nation to commemorate the discovery of the Raman Effect by Indian physicist Sir CV Raman, a milestone in the realm of science that won him the Nobel Prize. SRM University-AP, a pioneering multi-stream research institution has also celebrated the occasion of National Science Day on February 28, 2022, with immense pride, and paid homage to the pre-eminent scientist.

The event was celebrated in collaboration with South Asian Meteorological Association (SAMA) under the 2022 theme ‘Integrated Approach in Science and Technology for a Sustainable Future’ to exploit the burgeoning possibilities in the scientific domain for a healthy and prosperous future. Distinctive talks on the works of Nobel laureates of Physics, 2021 by notable scholars, Prof. T. Yasunari, Advisor, RIHN KCCAC, Japan and Prof. Krishna Achuta Rao, Head, CAS, IIT-Delhi were also arranged to shed light on the latest research practices and developments.

The inaugural address was delivered by Prof. V.S. Rao, Vice-Chancellor. He appreciated the students for their enormous participation in the activities organised as part of the celebration, and for rightly articulating the significance of the focal theme through their representations. “There cannot be a better example than the pandemic which demonstrated the integration of science and technology” he asserted. He also recollected the invaluable contributions of Indian scholars like Dr Jagadish Chandra Bose, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Homi J Bhabha and Vikram Sarabhai who transformed the scientific outlook of the country.

Prof. BV Babu, Dean of School of Engineering and Sciences addressed the gathering and briefed about the relevance of taking science and technology together towards a sustainable future. He emphasized the relevance of non-conventional sources of energy in the times ahead and the social benefits associated with them. He further elaborated on the concept of digital lean solutions and their impact on our lives.

Prof. D Narayana Rao, Pro Vice-Chancellor presided over and expressed concern over the inescapable repercussions of climate change and ruthless exploitation of nature. He also recognised the pivotal role SRM University-AP continues to play in creating talents and masterminds through intensive research practices and exposure to global technological facilities.

Prof. Someshwar Das, Convenor SAMA introduced the organisation, South Asian Meteorological Association and briefed about the numerous remarkable activities it carried out since its inception. He also highlighted various plans the organization intends to execute in future.

Further, there were talks on the works of Nobel Laureates 2021. Prof. T. Yasunari explicated the major works of the Nobel Laureate Prof. Syukuro Manabe and reiterated Manabe’s philosophy of ‘Simplicity and Balance’ in Climate Modelling. Prof. Krishna Achuta Rao threw light into the Stochastic Climate model, the innovation of another Nobel winner, Klaus Hasselman. A question-answer session was also organised with both the speakers for the students to gain insight into global scientific developments.

An array of programmes including science exhibition, laboratory visit, and quiz competition was also organised as part of the science day celebrations. Nearly 400 students from around 20 schools in and around the city of Guntur and Vijayawada actively participated in the events and expressed their inquisitive spirit and passion for science.

Awards and certificates were distributed to the winners and all other participants by the dignitaries. Students who have come up with innovatory models such as bluetooth car, human rescue detection system and many more were specially acknowledged and given mementoes. Dr Premkumar, Registrar proposed the vote of thanks and expressed his gratitude to everyone, especially the students for their enthusiastic participation.

The programme was made a huge success with the active and timely coordination of the organising committee, effective participation of the students and cooperation of every supporting staff and student at the university. SRM University-AP surges ahead as a revolutionary institute in research and developments and intends to disseminate scientific temper among the students to make phenomenal contributions to the world of science.

The Department of Computer Science Engineering is proud to announce that Dr Sriramulu Bojjagani has published a paper titled “Blockchain-Based Security Framework for Sharing Digital Images using Reversible Data Hiding and Encryption” in the journal Multimedia Tools and Applications (MTAP) having an impact factor of 2.757.

The paper is published in collaboration with D.R Denslin Brabin from the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, DMI College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu and Christo Ananth from the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, St. Mother Theresa Engineering College, Tamil Nadu.

Abstract of the Research

Security is an important issue in current and next-generation networks. Blockchain will be an appropriate technology for securely sharing information in next-generation networks. Digital images are the prime medium attacked by cyber attackers. In this paper, a blockchain-based security framework is proposed for sharing digital images in a multi-user environment. The proposed framework uses reversible data hiding and encryption as component techniques. A novel high-capacity reversible data hiding scheme is also proposed to protect digital images. Reversible data hiding in combination with encryption protects the confidentiality, integrity and authentication of digital images. In the proposed technique, the digital image is compressed first to create room for data hiding, then the user signature is embedded; afterwards, the whole image is encrypted. For compression, JPEG lossy compression is used to create high capacity. For encryption, any symmetric block cipher or stream cipher can be used. Experimental results show that the proposed blockchain-based framework provides high security and the proposed reversible data hiding scheme provides high capacity and image quality.

security framework blockchain technology sriramulu bojjagani

Fig 1: The process of encoding during reversible data hiding

Dr Sriramulu Bojjagani also intends to work on the development of block-chain based solutions to intelligent transport systems and on addressing the challenges of security issues involved in connected and autonomous vehicles.

Progressions in cathodic catalysts for oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution in bioelectrochemical systems: Molybdenum next-generation catalystThe Department of Environmental Science is proud to announce that Dr Lakhveer Singh has published his paper titled, “Progressions in cathodic catalysts for oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution in bioelectrochemical systems: Molybdenum as the next-generation catalyst” in a prestigious journal Catalysis Review with a high Impact Factor of 20.21.

The article is published in collaboration with NCL Pune, Hong Kong Baptist University, and VITO-Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Belgium.

Abstract of the Research

Oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) are unanimously a key factor of system performances in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), low-temperature fuel cells, and generally in several electro-chemical platforms. Platinum (Pt)-based catalyst is the finest electrocatalyst for ORR in BESs; however, it is constrained by its low abundance, high price, and poor catalytic durability in an electrochemical setup for cathodic reaction kinetics. Molybdenum (Mo) with its multi-dimensional form as 2D and 3D layers and synergistic combination with other non-metals offers prospects of extraordinary performance as a low-cost metal-based ORR catalyst over the Pt in delivering enhanced ORR potential.

About the Research

This article throws light on the current requirements of sturdier catalyst material and thus provides a comprehensive review of the continuing efforts in exploring the possibility of Mo as a low-cost metal-based ORR catalyst for sustainable energy production.

Mo-based catalysts have been now widely used for their applications in environmental and energy-based catalysis due to the low cost of Mo, high stability, and excellent activity.

In the future, Dr Lakhveer Singh and his collaborators are working on overcoming limitations to fabricate durable, stable, and catalytically active micro/nanoscale two-dimensional MoS2-based cathodes at an industrial scale, commercial bioelectrochemical devices can be obtainable in future.

Vision-based fall detection AI

Human-like care is difficult to replicate. Due to the lack of a reliable vision-based fall detection AI, it is often more effective to assign a lot of manpower towards vision-based detections that have not been efficiently implemented.

Ms Inturi Anita Rani, Research Scholar in the Department of Computer Science Engineering, working with her supervisor, Dr V. M. Manikandan, has worked on a paper titled, “A Novel Vision-Based Fall Detection Scheme using Keypoints of Human-Skeleton with Long Short-term Memory Network” in the Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering published by Springer with an Impact Factor of 2.33.

Abstract of the research:

Humans are skilled at visually recognizing and classifying actions in videos, but it’s tough to automate this process. Human action detection in videos is useful in applications like automated surveillance, assisted living, human-computer interaction, content-based video retrieval, and video summarization. The ability to recognize atomic actions like “walking,” “bending,” and “falling” is critical for activity analysis when monitoring elderly people’s daily activities. Our paper presents a new promising solution for fall detection using vision-based approaches. In this approach, we analyse the human joint points which are the prime motion indicators. A set of keypoints of the subject are acquired by applying the AlphaPose pre-trained network. These keypoints are inferred to be the joint points of the subject. The acquired keypoints are processed through a framework of convolutional neural network (CNN) layers. Here, the spatial correlation of the keypoints is analysed. The long-term dependencies are then preserved with the help of long short-term memory (LSTM) architecture. Our system detects five types of falls and six types of daily living activities. We used the UP-FALL detection dataset for validating our fall detection system and achieved commendable results when compared to the state-of-the-art approaches. For comparison, we employed the OpenPose network for keypoint detection. It is inferred from the results that the AlphaPose network is more precise in keypoint detection.

About the research paper:

In this paper, the author proposes a vision-based system that is capable of detecting various types of falls accurately through video processing with the help of a machine learning approach.

Implementation of the research:

The proposed scheme can be used to monitor the activity of elderly people and if any unusual falls happen, the information can be shared with caretakers to ensure emergency services.

“Progress in Alternative Strategies to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance: Focus on Antibiotics” is a paper authored by Prof Jayaseelan Murugaiyan, Professor & Head, Department of Biological Sciences at SRM University-AP and his research scholar Ms Saranya Adukkadukkam, in Antibiotics Journal, having an impact factor of 4.639. It is a remarkable achievement that our university served as the first and the corresponding authors of this paper published in association with “Global AMR Insights Ambassadors Network”. A total of 21 co-authors from 13 countries (India, UK, France, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Ukraine, Lebanon, Egypt, Uganda, Bangladesh, and Nigeria) and six Indian universities (including SRM AP) participated in this work.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) – the ability of microorganisms to survive antimicrobials – is a global healthcare concern. AMR contributes to 1.27 million deaths among the 4.95 million deaths associated with bacterial AMR. If no control measures are taken, it is estimated that by 2050, it will claim the lives of 300 million people. The rise of these “superbug bacteria’s” – means that trivial medical interventions will soon become once again high-risk since no efficient antimicrobial chemotherapy is available. It is, therefore, crucial to understand the current situation and identify alternatives to combat the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. This paper comprehensively discusses the alternative approaches that can be effectively utilised to combat AMR and, at the same time, without inducing further resistance among the pathogens. The paper has great social implications in making society aware of the scenario and encouraging the researchers to focus on alternative strategies to combat AMR.

Abstract of the paper: Antibiotic resistance, and, in a broader perspective, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), continues to evolve and spread beyond all boundaries. As a result, infectious diseases have become more challenging or even impossible to treat, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Despite the failure of conventional, traditional antimicrobial therapy, in the past two decades, no novel class of antibiotics has been introduced. Consequently, several novel alternative strategies to combat these (multi-) drug-resistant infectious microorganisms have been identified. The purpose of this review is to gather and consider the strategies that are being applied or proposed as potential alternatives to traditional antibiotics. These strategies include combination therapy, techniques that target the enzymes or proteins responsible for antimicrobial resistance, resistant bacteria, drug delivery systems, physicochemical methods, and unconventional techniques, including the CRISPR-Cas system. These alternative strategies may have the potential to change the treatment of multi-drug-resistant pathogens in human clinical settings.

Global AMR Insight Ambassador Network: AMR Insights, an international network-based organisation interacting with professionals around the globe: in Human and Veterinary Health, Agri-food and Environment, was set up in 2017 following an in-depth feasibility study towards a new information platform on AMR. It mainly focuses on informing, educating and connecting people with the aim to curb antimicrobial resistance. Prof Jayaseelan Murugaiyan and Ms Saranya Adukkadukkam are members of the Global AMR Insights Ambassador Network.

Ms Saranya Adukkadukkam, the co-author from SRM AP says:

The guidance of Prof Jayaseelan Murugaiyan is the pillar of my research. His support and passion for research always encourage me. He gives importance to translational research and motivates me to stand unique in the field. He shows me a path where I can serve the people through research. Foreseeing my future as a scientist, he guides me to more opportunities to collaborate with international scientists. I feel proud of my mentor Prof Jayaseelan Murugaiyan for letting me fly. Also, I thank SRM University-AP for providing generous fellowship, excellent research facilities and ambience to carry out the research.